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The oldest European painting of Aotearoa New Zealand in Te Papa’s collection will go in display in Toi Art, Te Papa’s art gallery, as part of Tamatea: He Tūtakinga Tuku Iho | Legacies of Encounter. The exhibition opens on Saturday 9 November.
The rare painting Waterfall in Dusky Bay with Maori canoe is by William Hodges, the first professional artist to depict the peoples and landscapes of this place. He was employed as an artist on Captain Cook’s second voyage to the Pacific aboard the Resolution from 1772-75.
In the autumn of 1773, southern Māori and Pākehā encountered each other for the first time when the Resolution anchored for five weeks at Tamatea (Dusky Sound). The encounter – which first-hand accounts suggest was amicable and involved mutual curiosity – inspired Hodges’ painting.
Tamatea: Legacies of Encounter presents Hodges’ painting in conversation with taonga and works by New Zealand artists Mark Adams and Colin McCahon. The exhibition is co-curated by Curator Historical New Zealand Art Dr Rebecca Rice and Megan Tamati-Quennell (Te Atiawa, Ngāi Tahu), Curator Modern & Contemporary Māori & Indigenous Art, with input from Ngāi Tahu ki Murihiku and Te Rūnanga o Ngāi Tahu.
The taonga acknowledge the significant human history of Tamatea stretching back hundreds of years, and the seasonal occupation by southern Māori. All were found in, or near, Tamatea, including a unique rākau atua, which represents a tangible connection to the Māori spiritual world.
Te Papa Kaihautū Dr Arapata Hakiwai says the exhibition enables artistic, scientific, and cultural reflections on the 1773 encounter to be explored through taonga.
“Collectively, the taonga represent the people and cultures of Tamatea before the arrival of Europeans,” he says.
Dr Rice and Ms Tamati-Quennell feel it is important to contextualise Hodges’ painting in a number of ways, so that visitors might be encouraged to explore the legacies of that first encounter, both for southern Māori, and for art in New Zealand.
“For many artists following in his wake, such as Mark Adams, William Hodges is the ancestor of landscape painting in New Zealand,” they say.
Tamatea: Legacies of Encounter includes two works from modern New Zealand artist Colin McCahon’s Waterfall series. Inspired by Hodges’ paintings of Cascade Falls in Tamatea, McCahon made his first of over a hundred waterfall paintings in 1964.
Contemporary photographer Mark Adams has over 30 years’ engagement in the colonial and pre-colonial histories of Aotearoa. The exhibition features a recent acquisition by Adams; a four panel photograph titled Nine Fathoms Passage, that responds to William Hodges’ Waterfall in Dusky Bay with a Maori Canoe.
Te Rūnanga o Ngāi Tahu Kaiwhakahaere Lisa Tumahai says it is appropriate that Hodges’ painting has returned home to Aotearoa as it comprises one of the earliest artistic depictions by Pākehā of tīpuna from southern Te Waipounamu.
“The encounter between Cook’s crew and the southern Māori families at Tamatea in 1773 was amicable. The portrayal of our tīpuna in this painting will be of interest to Ngāi Tahu whānui, and particularly to those with whakapapa to the deep south,” she says.
A soundscape has been designed for the exhibition by leading New Zealand musician Mara TK, incorporating field recordings made on location at Tamatea by filmmaker Braydon Moloney, and a waiata written and sung by Cheree Downes on Anchor Island.
On the day of the exhibition opening, Ngāi Tahu kaumātua, historian, and Māori place names expert Tā Tipene O’Regan is giving a public talk about the history and foundational mythology that originates in southern Te Waipounamu.
The Kaihaukai Art Collective is hosting an evening of music and food at Te Papa on 3 March 2020. Made up of Ngāi Tahu artists Simon Kaan and Ron Bull jr, the Kaihaukai Art Collective has undertaken projects in New Zealand and internationally. Their projects relate to indigenous food, customary practice, and whakapapa (Māori geneaology).
The acquisition of Waterfall in Dusky Bay with Maori canoe has been partially funded by the Lottery Grants Board from the Tuia – Encounters 250 fund.
Te Papa acquired William Hodges’ Waterfall in Dusky Bay with Māori Canoe for New Zealand’s national art collection in 2019.
The painting had been held in a private collection in England for over 200 years and was purchased for $685,000.
The 420mm x 570mm work is by William Hodges, an English painter employed as a draughtsman on Captain Cook’s second voyage to the Pacific aboard the Resolution from 1772-75. Hodges was the most important British artist, and the first professional artist, to visit New Zealand in the 18th century.
The painting depicts a quietly majestic scene in Tamatea, Dusky Sound: a waterfall cascades through native bush into the green depths of the water and mountains recede into the distance; Southern Māori are seated in a waka, holding large hoe or paddles.
Hodges was an English painter who trained under leading British landscape painter Richard Wilson. He emerged from his training as an important member of a younger generation of British painters. He was the most important British artist, and the first professional artist, to visit New Zealand in the 18th century.
In 1787, Hodges was elected as a member of London’s prestigious Royal Academy, a professional body established in 1768 for the promotion and exhibition of art.
Hodges’ career was marked by two major voyages. The first was his appointment as draughtsman on board Cook’s second voyage to the Pacific aboard the Resolution from 1772-75. His second was to India from 1780-83. Both voyages were intimately connected to the rise of the British Empire.
As artist on board the Resolution, Hodges was charged with making drawings and paintings of the places and peoples encountered during Cook’s second voyage, based on Cook’s firm belief that pictures offered ‘a more perfect idea thereof than could be formed by written descriptions only’. Consequently, Hodges was the first professional artist to extensively picture non-European lands and peoples in the Pacific and Asia during a period of imperial expansion.
Tamatea (Dusky Sound) is a Māori place, and a significant landscape for Ngāi Tahu. The fiords of Te Rua o te Moko (Fiordland) represent, in southern Māori tradition, the raised-up sides of Te Waka o Aoraki.
For centuries, southern Māori ventured around the coastline to Tamatea during late summer and autumn on sealing, birding, and fishing expeditions. Archaeological exploration has revealed waka, wharerau (huts), cave dwellings, tools, ovens, storage pits, middens, and whakakai (adornment). Their presence reinforces tribal knowledge of the longstanding seasonal occupation of Tamatea by southern Māori.
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Ka whakaatuhia te peita tino tawhito mō Aotearoa e mau ana ki te kohinga toi a Te Papa, arā, ki Toi Art, te wharetoi o Te Papa. Nō Ūropi te peita nei. Koia tētahi o ngā tino taonga i roto i te whakaaturanga o Tamatea: He Tūtakinga Tuku Iho | Legacies of Encounter, ka whakatuwherahia ā te Rāhoroi te 9 o Whiringa-ā-rangi.
He peita onge tēnei, ko Waterfall in Dusky Bay with Maori canoe te ingoa. He mea peita nā William Hodges, te ringatoi whai pūtea tuatahi i te tā i ngā tāngata me te takoto o tēnei whenua. I mahi ia hei ringatoi i te terenga tuarua o Kāpene Cook ki Te Moananui-a-Kiwa mā te Resolution mai i te tau 1772-75.
Nō te ūnga mai o te Resolution ki Tamatea, i te ngahuru o te tau 1773, ka tū te tūtakinga tuatahi o ngā Māori o te tonga me te Pākehā. E rima wiki te roa o te noho o te Resolution ki Tamatea. He mea whakaawe te peita a Hodges i taua tūtakinga, waihoki, hei tā ngā kōrero nō taua wā, he pai ngā whakawhitinga, e kaingākau ana ngā iwi e rua ki te ako i ngā kōrero mō iwi kē.
E tū ana a Tamatea: Legacies of Encounter i te taha o ngā taonga me ngā mahinga toi a Mark Adams rāua ko Colin McCahon. Nā Tākuta Rebecca Rice, arā, ko te Curator Historical New Zealand Art rāua ko Megan Tamati-Quennell (nō Te Ātiawa me Ngāi Tahu), arā, ko te Curator Modern & Contemporary Māori & Indigenous Art te whakaaturanga i whakarite, ka whai wāhi hoki a Ngāi Tahu ki Murihiku me Te Rūnanga o Ngāi Tahu.
E mau ana ēnei taonga i ngā kōrero mō te noho o te tangata ki Tamatea, ka hia rau tau ki muri, me te noho ā-tau a te Māori nō te tonga ki taua takiwā. I kitea ngā taonga katoa ki Tamatea, e pātata ana rānei ki reira, otirā, he rākau atua ahurei tētahi – he tohu whakahirahira tēnā nō ngā tohunga o neherā.
Hei tā te Kaihautū o Te Papa, hei tā Tākuta Arapata Hakiwai, mā ngā taonga nei, ka tūhura mai te ao toi, te ao pūtaiao me ngā tikanga ā-iwi nō te wā o te tūtakinga o te tau 1773.
“He kitenga taonga, he hokinga mahara, ki ngā tāngata me ngā tikanga a te rohe o Tamatea, i mua mai i te taenga mai o te Pākehā,” tana kī.
Hei tā Tākuta Rice rāua ko Ms Tamati-Quennell, he mea nui ki te kite i te peita a Hodges i roto i ngā horopaki maha, arā, kia whakaawea te kaimātakitaki ki te tūhura i ngā kōrero tuku iho mō taua tūtakinga tuatahi – e pā ana ki te noho o te Māori o te tonga, ki te ao toi o Aotearoa hoki.
Hei tā te tokorua rā, “Ki ngā ringatoi e whai ana i ōna tapuwae, pērā i a Mark Adams, ko William Hodges tētahi o ngā tīpuna nui o te mahi peita whakaahua taiao ki Aotearoa.”
E rua ngā mahinga toi nā tētahi o ngā ringatoi o te ao toi hou o Aotearoa, arā, nā Colin McCahon, mai i tana kohinga peita e kīia ana ko Waterfall. Ka puta mai te tuatahi o aua peita – nui atu i te kotahi rau peita te katoa – i te tau 1964. He mea whakaawe nā ngā peita a Hodges mō Cascade Falls i Tamatea.
Neke atu i te toru tekau tau a Mark Adams, he kaitangowhakaahua o te ao hou, e toro atu ana ki ngā kōrero tuku iho mō muri atu, mō mua mai hoki o te taunga mai o te Pākehā ki Aotearoa. Kei te whakaaturanga nei tētahi whiwhinga hou i a Adams; he whakaahua, e whā ngā wāhanga, ko Nine Fathoms Passage te ingoa. He whakahoki tērā ki Waterfall in Dusky Bay with a Maori Canoe nā William Hodges.
Hei tā te Kaiwhakahaere o Te Rūnanga o Ngāi Tahu, hei tā Lisa Tumahai, e tika ana kua hoki mai te peita a Hodges ki tōna kāinga, ki Aotearoa, i te mea, koia hoki tētahi o ngā tānga tuatahi a te Pākehā mō ngā tīpuna o te tonga o Te Waipounamu.
“He pai te tūtakinga o ngā kaihoe a Cook me ngā whānau o ngā Māori o te tonga ki Tamatea i te tau 1773. He mea nui kia kitea tēnei tānga o ō mātou tīpuna e Ngāi Tahu Whānui, waihoki e ngā whānau e whakapapa ana ki Murihiku.”
Kua waihangatia hoki tētahi mahinga oro e Mara TK, arā, ko tētahi o ngā ringatoi nui o Aotearoa. Kua whakaemihia e ia ngā oro nō Tamatea tonu, he mea hopu nā tētahi kaihanga kiriata, nā Braydon Moloney me tētahi waiata nā Cheree Downes i tito, i waiata hoki ki te motu o Pukenui.
I te rā o te whakatuwheratanga, ka takina e Tā Tīpene O'Regan, he kaumātua nō Ngāi Tahu, he mātanga ingoa wāhi hoki, ngā kōrero tuku iho mō Murihiku.
Hei te 3 o Poutūterangi 2020, ka whakahaerehia e Kaihaukai Art Collective tētahi pō whakatangitangi puoru me te kai ki Te Papa. Ko Kaihaukai Art Collective tētahi tokorua nō Ngāi Tahu, arā, ko Simon Kaan rāua ko Ron Bull jr. Nā rāua ētahi kaupapa toi i whakatū ki Aotearoa, ki rāwāhi hoki. He kaupapa ēnei e hāngai ana ki ngā kai a te iwi taketake, ki ngā tikanga me te whakapapa.
Nā Te Puna Tahua, i runga i te pūtea o Tuia – Encounters 250 tētahi wāhi o Waterfall in Dusky Bay with Maori canoe i utu.
Ka riro i a Te Papa te peita o Waterfall in Dusky Bay with Maori Canoe, nā William Hodges, hei wāhi o ngā toi ā-motu o Aotearoa i te tau 2019.
Neke atu i te 200 tau te peita e mau ana ki tētahi kohinga tūmataiti ki Ingarangi. E $685,000 te utu.
E 420mm x 570mm te rahi o te mahinga toi. Nā William Hodges te peita, he ringatoi nō Ingarangi, e mahi ana hei kaitā hoahoa i te terenga tuarua o Kāpene Cook ki Te Moananui-a-Kiwa i runga i te Resolution mai i te tau 1772-75. Ko Hodges te ringatoi nui rawa nō Peretania, ko ia hoki te ringatoi whai utu tuatahi i tau mai ki Aotearoa i te rautau tekau mā waru.
He tirohanga rangatira tāna i tā ai mō Tamatea: e rere iho ana tētahi hīrere mā ngā rākau māori, ki tētahi puna wai hōhonu, he kārikiuri te tae. Kei muri rā anō ngā maunga e tū rangatira ana; kei rō waka ngā tīpuna nō te tonga, e mau ana i ngā hoe nunui.
He ringapeita a Hodges nō Ingarangi. I whakangungua e tētahi o ngā mātanga peita whakaahua taiao nō Peretania, e Richard Wilson. Ka puta atu ia i āna akoranga, ka hou tōna rongo hei ringatoi matua i waenga i te reanga hou o ngā ringapeita nō Peretania.
I te tau 1787, ka kopoua a Hodges hei mema o tētahi o ngā whare rangatira o Rānana, arā, o te Royal Academy, he whakahaere whai utu, i whakatūria i te tau 1768 hei whakatairanga, hei whakaatu hoki i ngā mahinga toi.
E rua ngā terenga nui ō Hodges i roto i āna mahi toi. Ko te terenga tuatahi, ko tana whakatūnga hei ringatā hoahoa i te terenga tuarua o Cook ki Te Moananui-a-Kiwa, ki runga i te Resolution mai i te tau 1772-75. I tae atu ia ki Īnia i tana terenga tuarua i te tau 1780-83. He pānga nui o ēnei haerenga e rua ki te whakatipunga ake o te Emepaea o Peretania.
I raro i tana tūranga hei ringatoi ki runga i te Resolution, ko te mahia a Hodges, he tā, he peita hoki i ngā wāhi me ngā tāngata i kitea i te wā o te terenga tuarua o Cook, i te mea, hei tā Cook, 'e hāngai ake ana' te pikitia 'i ngā tuhinga kupu anake.' Nā whai anō, ko Hodges te ringatoi tuatahi i utua ki te tā i ngā whenua me ngā tāngata o waho atu o Ūropi, arā, ki Te Moananui-a-Kiwa, ki Āhia hoki i te wā o ngā toronga nui o te ringa hao o te kīngitanga o Ingarangi.
He whenua Māori a Tamatea, he whenua whakahirahira hoki ki te iwi o Ngāi Tahu. Hei tā ngā kōrero tuku iho a ngā Māori o te tonga, ko ngā kokoru o Te Rua o te Moko, ngā rauawa o Te Waka o Aoraki.
Ka hia rautau, ngā Māori o te tonga e toro haere ana i te tahatai o Tamatea i te paunga o te raumati me te ngahuru hei hopu kēkeno, manu me ngā ika. Kua kitea he waka, he wharerau, he nohanga ana, he taputapu, he umu, he rua kai, he rua para me te whakakai, kei ngā rua whai para tangata. Kei te taunaki ērā putanga i ngā kōrero tuku iho a te iwi mō ngā nohanga ā-tau o ngā Māori o te tonga ki Tamatea i ngā wā o mua.Close te reo Māori text