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He taonga nui te tohutoa a Te Pahi ki te motu whānui: ko te koha tapu tuatahi nā te kāwanatanga ki tētahi rangatira Māori.
The Te Pahi medal is a taonga
taongatreasureMāori | noun of national importance: the first official state gift given to a Māori chief.
The Governor of New South Wales, Philip Gidley King, had the medal made to mark Te Pahi’s three-month visit to Sydney. John Austin, a convict silversmith, probably crafted it from two watch cases.
King hoped to secure resources for his colony from Te Pahi, and protection of whalers and traders in the Bay of Islands. Te Pahi aimed to establish trade ties and acquire new technology.
In 1810, tragedy struck in Northland. A local chief’s son had been flogged on the Boyd, a cargo ship. In retaliation, his tribe massacred all on board. Te Pahi was wrongly blamed.
Revenge was swift – British whalers sacked Te Pahi’s island pā
pāfortified villageMāori | noun, killing up to 60 Māori. Te Pahi was fatally wounded. During the turmoil, the medal vanished.
Te Pahi’s medal all but disappeared between 1810 and 2014. It was only mentioned once, in an Australian will dated 1899. How it got to Australia from the Bay of Islands is a mystery.
In 2014, the medal resurfaced at Sotheby’s Sydney auction house. Te Pahi’s iwi
iwitribeMāori | noun, Ngāpuhi, explored a legal challenge to its sale, fearing the taonga could be lost to a private collector.
On auction day, Ngāpuhi performed a haka
hakadefiant chantMāori | noun outside the sale venue. Meanwhile, Te Papa and Auckland Museum, with Ngāpuhi’s endorsement, put in a joint bid – and won.
Te Pahi’s descendants welcomed his medal back to the Bay of Islands in November 2014. Afterwards, it was handed into the care of Te Papa and Auckland Museum, its new co-owners.
Currently, Te Papa is custodian of the Te Pahi medal – a tribute to a leader of great mana
manaprestigeMāori | noun, and a symbol of friendship between two peoples.
E tohu ana te kōhao o runga ka whakamauria te tohutoa ki te kakī: I tuhia e Kāwana King inā ‘he mea whakamau ki te kakī o [Te Pahi] e tētahi mekameka hiriwa kaha.’
The hole in the medal shows it was designed to be worn: Governor King wrote that it ‘was suspended by a strong silver chain around [Te Pahi’s] neck.’
Te Pahi Medal, 1806, New South Wales, by John Austin. Collection of the Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa and the Auckland War Memorial Museum Tamaki Paenga Hira. Purchased 2014. Te Papa (GH024416)
Ko Philip Gidley King, Kāwana o Niu Haute Wēra, nāna i whakarite kia hanga he tohutoa mō Te Pahi ‘hei tohu i ōku whakaaro mōna’.
Philip Gidley King, Governor of New South Wales, had the medal made for Te Pahi ‘to give him some proof of the estimation he was held in’.
Philip Gidley King, about 1800-05, artist unknown. State Library of New South Wales (a8300002)
Ko Te Pahi, rangatira o Ngāpuhi o Ngāti Awa, nāna ngā taonga rangatira ka hoatu ki a Kāwana King – he patu kuratapu me ētahi kākahu.
Te Pahi, rangatira of the Ngāpuhi and Ngāti Awa tribes, brought his host Governor King fine gifts – a ceremonial patu and several kākahu.
Tippahee A New Zealand Chief, 1827, engraving by William Archibald from an original drawing by George Harris. Alexander Turnbull Library (A-092-007)
I te wā ka manaakitia a Te Pahi, māuiui kē a King, kua wherū i te noho ture kore o te koroni o Niu Haute Wēra. Ka rua ngā tau ka mate i te tau 1808.
When Philip Gidley King hosted Te Pahi, he was already unwell, and exhausted from governing the unruly New South Wales colony. He died two years later, in 1808.
Philip Gidley King, about 1800, artist unknown. State Library of New South Wales (IE204307)
Ka mīharo te tini i a Te Pahi nōna i Poihākena, ko Māui waewae kakama tōna rite – e tata ono pūtu tōna hūroaroa ā, he mau moko.
Te Pahi fascinated many in Sydney with his striking physical presence – he was nearly six feet tall and wore a mokomoko facial tattoo.
Tippahee [Te Pahi] a chief of New Zealand, 1808, by James Finucan. State Library of New South Wales (SV*/Mao/Port/14)
Ka manaakitia a Te Pahi e Philip Gidley King i te Whare Kāwanatanga i Parramatta, i Poihākena, mai i te marama o Noema 1805 ki te marama o Hānuere 1806.
Te Pahi was a guest of Philip Gidley King at Government House in Parramatta, Sydney, from November 1805 to February 1806.
First Government House, Sydney, about 1807, by John Eyre. State Library of New South Wales (SV/31)
Te whakaekenga a Ngāti Pou me te whakapakūtanga o te Boyd ki Te Taitokerau. Ka whakapaetia hētia a Te Pahi nāna te pāhuahua me te parekuratanga o ngā tangata eke.
In Northland, Ngāti Pou iwi [tribe] attacked the Boyd, triggering a gunpowder explosion. Te Pahi was wrongly blamed for the ship’s looting and crew’s massacre.
Louis John Steele and Kennett Watkins, The Blowing Up of the Boyd, 1889. Purchased 1992 with New Zealand Lottery Grants Board funds (1992-0019-2)
I ponitaka te whenua o Te Pahi i te rohe o Rangihoua i Pēwhairangi. Ka kitea ake ko te pā o Rangihoua i tēnei whakaahua whenua, ka 17 ngā tau i muri iho i tōna matenga.
Te Pahi’s roherohe territory surrounded Rangihoua Bay in the Bay of Islands. It included Rangihoua PāPā fortified village, shown in this landscape 11 years after his death.
Ranghe Hue [Rangihoua] a New Zealand Fortified Village, The Residence of Warri-Pork [Wharepoaka], 1827, by Augustus Earle. National Library of Australia (T178 NK12/141)
Kei tēnei peita waikano, atu i te tihi he mārama te kite atu ko te pā o Rangihoua, tētahi o ngā kāinga o Te Pahi. Kua pīreretia i te wā i peita ai tēnei whakaahua whenua e Edward Ashworth.
Rangihoua Pā, one of Te Pahi’s villages, is visible on the highest peak in this watercolour. It was deserted when Edward Ashworth painted this landscape.
Hemioramic view of the North part of the Bay of Islands New Zealand, 1844, by Edward Ashworth. Alexander Turnbull Library (E-042-036/037)
Ka whakahoahoa a Minita Mātenga rāua ko Te Pahi i Poihākena. I te tau 1814, ka ara i a Mātenga te kāinga mihingare tuatahi o Niu Tireni ka tū nei i te take o te pā o Rangihoua.
Reverend Samuel Marsden had befriended Te Pahi in Sydney. In 1814, he founded New Zealand’s first missionary settlement below the late chief’s village, Rangihoua Pa.
Tepoanah [Te Puna] Bay of Islands New Zealand a Church Missionary Establishment, about 1827, by Augustus Earle. National Library of Australia (T176 NK12/139)
Ko motuapo te kāinga o Te Pahi ka pāhuatia, arā, te motu iti o mua o tēnei whakaahua. I tēnei rā, ko te nuinga o ōna whenua kei te Rangihoua Heritage Park.
Te Pahi’s sacked island pā was on Motuapo, the island in the foreground in this image. Today, this area is Rangihoua Heritage Park.
Rangihoua Bay, Bay of Islands. Image from the 2014 documentary Tippahee, directed by Komako Silver
Ka whakaritea e te Kāwana o Niu Haute Wēra, e Philip Gidley King, kia hanga he tohutoa hei tohu i te haerenga a Te Pahi ki Poihākena, e toru marama nei te roa. Tērā pea he mea hanga i ngā pouaka wāti e rua nā John Austin, he mauhere kaihanga tohutoa.
Ka hiahia a King kia whiwhi tōna koroni ki ngā rawa i ā Te Pahi, māna hoki ngā kaipatu tohorā, ngā kaihokohoko i Pēwhairangi e tauārai. He tikanga hoki tā Te Pahi ko te whakaū i te mahi tauhokohoko me te whiwhi hangarau hou.
I te tau 1810, ka pā te kino ki Te Taitokerau. Ka wepua te tamaiti a tētahi rangatira o runga i te Boyd, he waka utanga. Nā, ka rapu utu, parekuratia ana te katoa o ngā tāngata eke. Ka whakapaetia hētia a Te Pahi.
Kia ea tonu te mate – pāhuatia ana te motu a Te Pahi e ngā kaipatu tohorā, ka patua me te mea e 60 Māori. Nō te tārukenga, ka taotūtia kinotia a Te Pahi, ka ngaro te tohutoa.
Ka ngaro mārika te tohutoa a Te Pahi mai i ngā tau 1810 ki 2014. Kotahi anō te wā i kōrerotia ai, ki tētahi ōhākī i Ahitereiria i te tau 1899. He mea huna tāna hokinga atu i Pēwhairangi ki Ahitereiria.
I te tau 2014, ka puta ake anō te tohutoa i te whare mākete o Sotheby’s ki Poihākena. Ka kimi tikanga ture a Ngāpuhi kia kaua ai te hoko, tērā kei riro atu anō ki tētahi kaikohi tūmatawhāiti.
I te rā hoko, ka ngeri a Ngāpuhi i waho o te wāhi mākete. I taua wā tonu, tuku ngātahitia ana he tono e Te Papa me Tāmaki Paenga Hira i runga i te reo tautoko a Ngāpuhi – nā, ka toa.
Nō te marama o Whiringa-ā-rangi 2014, i Pēwhairangi, ka whakatauria e ngā uri te tohutoa a Te Pahi. Nō muri, ka hoatu ki ngā ringa o Te Papa me Tāmaki Paenga Hira, hei ngā kaitiaki hou.
I tēnei wā, ko Te Papa te kaitiaki o te tohutoa a Te Pahi – he whakamānawa hoki i tētahi rangatira mana nui, he tohu piringa tata i waenganui i ngā iwi e rua.
Please expand the English text for a slideshow in both te reo Māori and English.